his easel was his staff of life

Harry Sheldon was once a very familiar figure to Berkhamsted inhabitants.  He was often   seen painting about the town, practising the firm belief that working outdoors in front of his chosen subject was the best way to capture the spontaneous effect of light and movement in a landscape.  You would have seen him out in the town in all weathers, well wrapped up and regularly perched in the most surprising places, sometimes on the kerb edge, on a traffic island or, at times, tucked away in hedges.

Harry Sat with his back to the camera as he paints on a large board with paper attached. in the background you can see rolled countryside, fields and trees in the distance. We are looking over his shoulder seeing his work. he wears a hat and tweed looking jacket. the photo is black and white.
Harry Sheldon at work painting Aldbury from Pitstone Hill. Gazette dated 16 January 1981.

Today we share some of his work, which we care for at the Museum Store.  The watercolours we show you form part of  Berkhamsted Town Council’s collection. They all appeared in the book Berkhamsted Story,   which was written by  John Cook and published by Berkhamsted Town Council to commemorate the millennium.  It is believed that either John Cook or Berkhamsted Town Council commissioned Harry Sheldon to create these beautiful illustrations especially for the book.

Brought up in Marple, Cheshire,  Harry came from a long line of artists. He studied art at the Whitworth School of Artin Manchester and eventually studied figure drawing for five years under L S Lowry at the Salford School of Art.

He joined the Coldstream Guards at the outbreak of the Second World War. In 1942, he went out to India, commissioned into the 8th Gurkha Rifles.  While there waiting to be invalided home from Karachi Military Hospital, Harry’s paintings were spotted by the then Commander-in-Chief Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, who put his name forward as an official War Artist.

A Young Garhwali Man in Traditional Dress by Harry Sheldon © The Gurkha Museum.

“I grabbed the idea. It was a bit odd – I was an officer going into battle with a revolver and a sketch pad. The pad was more important to me.”


He painted dozens of battle scenes in Burma and the Middle East.  Many now hang in army museums in India, Singapore and England. During the war, he painted most of the famous Indian Army commanders, including Mountbatten, Wavell, Auchinleck, Browning and Slim, and all the Indian Army VCs.

For more than three decades, Harry resided in Berkhamsted, dedicating himself to capturing the local scenes and characters in his artwork. His paintings were highly sought-after in the local community and beyond.

For many years, Harry donated his pictures as prizes for charitable raffles.  Most notable was his support in funding The Hospice of St Francis.  In 1979, he offered  a line drawing of a long boat on a Hertfordshire canal to raise money for the new Hospice which was planned for Berkhamsted.  Harry went on to reproduce the drawing to make notebooks and Christmas cards to raise further funds.

Gazette 6 Mar 2002

Harry, pictured with Ghurka soldier who visited the town.  In 2000 he was commissioned by the 1st battalion of the Royal Gurkha Rifles to paint the portrait of a rifleman to mark the millennium and to hang in the regimental mess at Church Crookham in Hampshire. Gazette 6 March 2002.

Sadly, Harry's health began to decline two years prior to his passing on 26 February  2002, at the age of 84. Nevertheless, his legacy endures through the numerous works he produced during his lifetime, some of which are cared for by Dacorum Heritage at the Museum Store.

The scrapbook record of a school that once existed

Highfield was a secondary school in Hemel Hempstead, built to support the New Town’s growing population as it expanded in the 1960s. It survived for only 21 years from 1963 to 1984 and its site has now been developed for housing.
Apart from a few papers in the Hertfordshire Archive, Dacorum Heritage is custodian of most of Highfield School’s surviving records. These were donated by John Cotton, headmaster throughout Highfield’s existence. The records consist of a series of books containing memorabilia documenting the story of the school. Within the books’ pages lies a trove of photographs, programmes, newspaper clippings, and school communications.

a group of about 28 students stand in two rows. the row in the back are standing higher on the stage so all their faces can be seen by the audience who are not in the shot. The students are all mostly looking down at a white piece of paper and look like they are in the middle of singing. A Black and White photo
The first school event – Harvest Festival 1963.
A group shot of 27 of children aged 9- 11 years old. the front row are seated on their knees. their hair looks like it's blowing in the wind. they are grouped in a large field. they are squinting from the sun and one child has his hand up to his forehead shielding himself from the sun. A Black and White photo
In August 1964, a group from the first intake spent a week at St Mary’s Bay, Kent.

Highfield opened its doors for the first time on 10 September 1963 to an inaugural intake of 78 first year students. A ‘state of the art’ school building, designed by Fello Atkinson (1919–1982), sadly the building barely outlived its architect. Pictures of the school evoke the New Town dream, pristine grounds, polished wooden floors, and spacious, well-lit laboratories and classrooms. By the time the school closed, around 2,000 pupils had passed through its doors.
John Cotton had impressive leadership credentials. He was an ex-commando officer who had served in the Far East in the Second World War. He was an well-regarded poet and an active member of the Teachers’ Union and Labour Party. He held high ambitions for the pupils, but the school was not immune from the lack of funding and low aspirations that beleaguered the secondary education sector during the sixties and seventies. Nevertheless, Highfield offered a wide range of artistic and sporting activities. There was a Sailing Club which built its own boat, and the sports teams were accomplished, the pinnacle being the pioneering Girls’ Basketball team who were U16s National Schools winners. The team captain, Andrea Warner, went on to play for England.

a group of young women stand in two rows. the front row are sitting on a bench. The two in the centre hold a small silver trophy. each girl is holding a handle on each side. The row at the back, in the centre stands a male basketball coach wearing a dark coloured tie and his arms behind his back. Everyone is smiling and look very happy in the photo. A Black and White photo
The U16s basketball team that went on to be National Champions a year later.
Back Row L to R – C. Whittle, G. Cheshire-Beeson, M A Duffield (Coach). L. Klyen, S. Bateman
Front Row L to R – D. Driscoll, M. Howse, A. Warner, C. Watts, C. Robinson, L. Carten

However, by the late seventies the writing was on the wall for Highfield. Changing demographics and declining enrollment prompted initial discussions with Grove Hill around the merging of sixth forms. This culminated in the more radical proposal to voluntarily amalgamate the schools, giving birth to a new institution, Astley Cooper School, situated at the Grove Hill site.
The fates of Highfield and Grove Hill had been intertwined from the start. During the construction of Grove Hill’s buildings, Highfield had temporarily hosted its pupils. Grove Hill’s long-standing Headmaster Wolfgang Schlessinger went on to lead the newly merged schools. John Cotton took the opportunity to retire to his home in Berkhamsted. His death at the age of 78 in 2003 was commemorated with obituaries in several national newspapers.
The Highfield School books are absorbing even for those with no connection to the school as the stories are universal. The fetes, concerts, school trips and sporting events and the never-ending exam cycle all resonate with our own childhoods. However, unlike the typical school history, it does not provide a completely varnished history and is therefore a most interesting and accurate record. Ultimately, it is the personal stories that shine through. One is left to wonder what happened to the pupils whose faces are captured in these books and that attended this school, of which few traces remain.

 A Black and White photo shows a car in a street. behind the car we can see building work happening as bricks are wooden beams are piled up. in the far backgroun we can see a building but it looks unfinished. There are two young children aged 4- 6 years old one is whispering into the younger ones ear. We also see a adult standing by the car looking at the children from a distance.
An early picture of Highfield School before it was completed. The participants in the photo may be John Cotton’s family.
researched and written by Alex Scott Dacorum Heritage Volunteer February 2024

During the Second World War, the Government faced a huge challenge raising the capital needed to support the war effort. Warships Week was a series of fundraising events organised across the country over a period of 24 weeks from 1941–1942.  It was hoped that these funds would cover the costs of the expansion in shipbuilding.

Plaque of Hemel Hempstead sponsored HMS Berkeley

Towns and districts were tasked with organising fundraising events in which residents were encouraged to subscribe to Government War Savings Bonds and Certificates. In return, the community would gain sponsorship of a Naval Vessel, which would, where possible, involve visits by ships’ crews, the exchange of memorabilia and further donations of comforts for the crew members. Nationally, the events were incredibly successful, raising just under £1bn or £46bn in today’s money.

HMS Berkeley after being scuttled in the English Channel ©IWM

The communities that make up the modern day Dacorum Borough were involved in three major fundraising efforts, based around the towns of Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring. The timing was decided to coincide with those of neighbouring towns to create a spirit of competition. In the first week of March 1942, Hemel Hempstead held its Warships Week event at the same time as Rickmansworth, followed by Berkhamsted several weeks later at the same time as Chesham. In both cases the Dacorum towns were winners. The scale of local events was impressive given war time restrictions, with parades, displays and pageants, all faithfully recorded in the local newspapers.

Warship week poster

Hemel Hempstead sponsored HMS Berkeley, a Hunt class destroyer launched in 1940, and raised £286,000.  The town was visited by its captain, Lieutenant Commander James Yorke and was subsequently presented with the ship’s badge, now in the care of Dacorum Heritage. Sadly, HMS Berkeley did not enjoy its association with Hemel Hempstead for long as it was destroyed during the raid on Dieppe in August 1942. Hit by German bombs with the loss of 13 crew, it was abandoned and then scuttled by its fellow destroyer HMS Albrighton with a salvo of torpedoes.

The other vessels sponsored by Dacorum towns were more fortunate. Berkhamsted raised £226,000 for the submarine P44, which was being commissioned at Barrow-in-Furness at the time of the town’s Warship Week, and subsequently named HMS Union. A banner with the submarine’s image was hung from the Civic Centre and the submarine’s captain, T.E. Barlow, managed to pay a short notice visit to Berkhamsted one Sunday evening in March 1942, whilst on a visit to his home in Wendover. HMS Union went on to have a successful career in the Mediterranean sinking a number of Italian naval ships, submarines and merchant vessels, and was scrapped in 1946.

Tring raised £77,113 and sponsored HMS Arctic Hunter. Artic Hunter was a converted trawler from Hull used for minesweeping duties in the North Sea and English Channel and had a supporting role in the Normandy landings.  During its career, the vessel was credited with destroying 110 mines and one Dornier 217 Bomber. It returned to fishing after the war and was scrapped in 1952.

P44 – HMS Union ©IWM
Researched and written by Alex Scott and Robin Herzberg
Dacorum Heritage Volunteer, and Dacorum Heritage Trustee February 2024

In the last two newsletters, we have explored the fire of Gaddesden Place and the accounts of the men working to save the building. Since then, we have looked through the Gazette to find out how funds were raised for a new steam engine to help improve the work of the volunteers of Hemel Hempstead Fire Brigade.
It was clear that the fire had an impact on the people of the town. An article the week after the fire addressed the ‘fire brigade efficiency’, and included a rather poetic call for action:

‘We trust that the great fire at Gaddesden Place, that lit up for a brief and unfortunate space the hills forming the Gade Valley will also have illuminated the Hemel Hempstead public in its duty towards the local fire brigade and in its light we shall now see our way to grant a necessary and proper building for the housing of its gear and thus a great calamity may not have been without its uses. Shall we wait for a nearer and more deadly fire in our own midst before we understand the need of efficiency?’

The small building to the right of this image, shows the fire station before redevelopment.

It was noted at the time that unlike St Albans and Watford, Hemel Hempstead had not been invited to take part in any of the various competitions for local fire brigades. This seemed like a great knock to the town’s pride, as it was felt that this was not due to the ‘lack of zeal’ of the firemen themselves but the antiquated engine and poor equipment that they possessed.
The money and the site for the new fire station were very quickly found, after the fire of Gaddesden Place. We can read in the Gazette that the designs and builders were soon employed before the full amount needed to build was even raised. The total cost of the new building was about £500 and in today’s money this was close to £40,000.
After many discussions about the location for the new building, land was donated on either side of its original site. The land was donated by two well-known names in Hemel Hempstead. The first was Mr Walter Grover, who was in residence at The Bury, the old registry office which overlooks Gadebridge Park. The second donor was Lt.-Col. Lionel Paston-Cooper, who also went by the name Lt.-Col. Lionel Hervey-Bathurst. Lt.-Col. Paston-Cooper was married to Mary Ethel Paston-Cooper, the daughter of the famous surgeon Sir Astley Paston-Cooper.
The site for the new building meant that the fire brigade could keep their central location and made good use of the frontage to the main road. The Boxmoor Trust donated all the funds needed for the building from their surplus taken from inhabitant householders of the parish of Hemel Hempstead. During their annual surplus distribution meeting, we learn from the minutes that Mr Hodgson presented a statement in connection with the new fire station building account:

‘The total cost was about £500, and the indebtedness at the present time was £366 16s. 2d. He would like to ask the meeting to vote the balance of £206 to the fund, which would only leave £164 to find, and perhaps in another year they could wipe that off. He thought the statement a very satisfactory one. (Hear, hear).’

black and white photo of the fire station when it was first open fire fighters and horse stand outside the new buildingHemel Hempstead Fire Station in Queens Street, opposite the junction with Marlowes. Image attributed to ‘Culverhouse, Hemel Hempstead’.

The foundation stone laying ceremony took place on 18 April 1906, and, in addition to the official stones, a set of bricks destined for the lower part of the wall was arranged for interested people to lay with their name. The initials of those who laid them were carved to show on the inside wall of the station at the cost of 5 s, with all proceeds going to the building fund. The old slanting engine house at the foot of the high street in the old town was replaced with what was described as a ‘modern structure befitting the importance of the town’. It was a two-storeyed structure in the Elizabethan style of architecture so that it would be in harmony with the shops and offices which adorned the approach to the high street, known as The Broadway.
In just two months, in June 1906, a little over a year after the Gaddesden Place fire, the new fire station for Hemel Hempstead was opened by Alderman Balderson, the senior trustee of The Boxmoor Trust.
The first item on the programme was the presentation of a silver key, suitably inscribed, by the Mayor to Alderman Balderson on behalf of the Council, and the worthy ex-Mayor lost no time in fitting the key to the lock in the doors of the new station. As he turned it and threw the doors open, amidst applause, Alderman Balderson said:

‘I have very much pleasure in declaring these doors open. I am very glad of the privilege of performing this ceremony, and I trust that it will be many a long day before it is required to be opened for the engine to be brought to any of our homes.’

Mr Kimich, who owned a clock and watch makers shop in the old town, made and supplied the clock at his own expense. The Mayoress, by pulling the cord, then uncovered the clock on the building. In her speech she joked that the clock would be of much benefit to a very large number of people, especially to ‘those who were in the habit of getting to church late on Sundays’, which apparently went down very well with the crowds. Tea was provided afterwards in the new fire station, followed by a series of dry and wet drills performed in excellent times, by the Hemel Hempstead Brigade in the Bury Meadow.
Soon after the opening of the new fire station, work commenced to raise the £400 (approx. £30,000 in today’s money) needed for a new steam engine. In November 1906, we can see that the committee used the fireworks celebrations to persuade the public to subscribe and boost the funds for a new steam engine. At that point, only half of the money needed had been raised and, in the Gazette, they pleaded:

‘Where there are fireworks there must be fire and in case of fire what do we do? I hear a chorus of answers, “Send for the Fire Brigade”. Quite true. That would be the only sensible thing to do. But supposing that Fire Brigade was not sufficiently equipped, it would not be of much use to send for it, would it? You all say “No”. Very well. The Hemel Hempstead Brigade is not efficiently equipped. They want a steamer fire engine.’

This photo of the Hemel Hempstead Fire Brigade was taken in about 1910. The steamer engine is still horse drawn and the steam part is used for the pumping of the water, rather than having men hand pumping. We believe the engine and crew are parked in front of The Bury and the man on the far right could be Chief Officer Hancock.

Even ‘small villa residents’, were encouraged to donate as little as 5 s, or £20 in today’s money, for the much-needed engine.
By the end of 1906 the committee had enough money to finally purchase a steam fire engine and they accepted the tender of Messrs. Shand, Mason and Co., for the supply of one of their latest models of engines to be delivered next Easter. On 3 April 1907, the new steam fire engine for Hemel Hempstead arrived and was handed over to the Mayor on behalf of the town and a christening ceremony took place on the Market Square, High Street. Afterwards a demonstration was given in the Bury meadow and the annual dinner in connection with the brigade took place in the evening at the Town Hall.
We know that the new steam engine was affectionately called Mabel, but this is not reported in the christening ceremony. The only time we can see the reference to this name is in a letter written into the Gazette. In this letter, dated 13 June 1908, the reader asks where is Mabel? ‘I understand it is nearly three months ago since the last practice took place. Surely, sir, it is not doing the machinery any good, lying dormant at the Brigade station’. This letter was quickly followed up, the next week, with two letters in defence of the volunteer fire brigade, the first acknowledging their hard work and pointing out that the men had been recently awarded their certificates in first aid. The second letter was written by Captain Hancock and he states that Mabel was in fact moved at least two or three times a week and that steam fire engine practices cost money. He goes on to invite them to the next practice, so ‘that he may come and observe ‘Mabel’ for himself and also bring a donation to help pay expenses.’
The first time we can see the fire engine being used is in the reporting of a major fire in Leverstock Green on 21 July 1911. This fire took place at a barn and stabling adjoining The Three Horseshoes. The article in the Gazette reports that ‘a message was wired to the Hemel Hempstead fire station, and the Brigade under Captain Hancock, turned out smartly and was quickly on the scene with the steamer’.

In the centre, you can see the building of the old Hemel Hempstead Fire Station as it stands today. Google Maps.

We hope you have enjoyed reading about our research into the Gaddesden Place Fire and the subsequent improvements made to the brigade in Hemel Hempstead. We thank the volunteers who have worked through old copies of the Gazette to help us report on this episode from Hemel Hempstead’s past.

Read parts one and two of the Gaddesden Place FireIs there a subject you would like us to research? Get in touch to let us know via info@dacorumheritage.org.uk

This scrapbook within our museum's collection celebrates the golden jubilee of the Women’s Institute (WI) in the UK. It is an intimate and vivid portrait of the year 1965 and unfolds from the perspective of a community undergoing huge change.
Leverstock Green, once a quiet rural village surrounded by country lanes and open fields, found itself amid an inexorable transformation. The M1 had recently circled its boundary, disturbing the village’s relationship with the surrounding countryside. New housing estates had taken root and further development was initiated during the book’s twelve-month span.
The book contains a diverse and eclectic set of materials, including newspaper cuttings, personal observations, photographs, postcards, leaflets, programmes and even textile samples, assembled by the jubilee committee of the local WI. Change is the recurring theme and is documented microscopically. In addition, seasonal and permanent changes are recorded through monthly diaries of life in different village locations (such as Pancake Lane, Greenacres, Westwick Row and The Horseshoe), providing the varied content with a continuous thread, giving structure and much added interest.

Colours of Leverstock Green Primary School in Pancake Lane.

Familiar buildings, hedgerows, trees and fields are documented for the last time but not all changes are regretted. While the book offers many poignant moments, the women of the WI are hopeful for the future and the book celebrates growing families, improvements around the village, and social activities revolving around the church. One such example being the clock face re-gilding to celebrate their jubilee year.
We learn that the year began with snow on the ground, but that didn’t stop the ‘youngsters’ gathering at Westwick Farm for their riding lessons. The farmer’s daughter complains, ‘it has been increasingly difficult to find places to ride with them, with the new building going on and M1 cutting off access to open country’. Later that night, the first new Leverstock Green resident of the year arrives – Jonathan David Short on 2 January 1965, who misses being a New Year’s baby by just one hour.

The new direct dialing system was launched on 12 June 1965 and announced itself at 8:00am with a ‘gentle tinkle of the telephone bell’. Among its numerous advantages was that it allowed 999 calls to be made for the first time. It is assumed that the image of the telephone dial is taken from one of the leaflets promoting the new system.

Minor domestic dramas are recorded. In January, in Pancake Lane, Mrs Hildersley’s cat, the aptly named Snowy, goes missing during the bitterly cold spell. Mrs Fry of the Swedish Cottages on Westwick Row is distraught – also missing is her dog, Suzy. There is speculation that she could have been run over by a car, taken by a fox or even by the rumoured puma that has reportedly been seen in the area.
The ending of another era was marked by the death of Winston Churchill on 24 January, which was duly commemorated with prayers in the church, the funeral watched by most of the village on television. Happily, after ten days, Snowy returns, ‘much thinner but otherwise alright’. There is no further word on Suzy’s fate.
The book’s pages continue to unfold through 1965, offering a vivid picture of a community in transition but one in which social bonds are strong. The book contains many wry observations of local events and people. That summer, rumours of a visit by the Russian Ambassador to Leverstock Green prove to be just that. Disappointed residents are instead entertained by watching Lord Arran eat an ice cream ‘in his shirtsleeves’ at the cricket match. Perhaps, a sign of the slow relaxation of social standards.
An unexploded anti-aircraft rocket is found by the Farrow brothers in the old orchard opposite Malmes Croft. Upon inspection, the Bomb Disposal Squad confirm it is live but by then the village policeman had already removed the device to his own garden. There it is made safe, leaving a crater three and a half feet deep and six feet wide.

February 1965. The unveiling of the re-gilded village clock. The vicar (front, second left) to three-year-old John Hickling (front, second right), ‘I hope you are here when the clock is due to be re-gilded in fifty years’.

The book closes with a valedictory. It notes that Leverstock Green is no longer a village and that it has lost its feeling of intimacy; the nightingales have gone and there is tipping of rubbish in nearby lanes. However, ‘newcomers are friendly and co-operative and join in with Church affairs and other social activities’. It had already been noted that the newcomers had bolstered membership of the WI and Scouts, and, it adds, ‘we look forward to the new village hall being eventually completed to accommodate all the social activities’. The final line is a plea that, ‘good youth-leaders will arise and install into the young, a sense of pride and responsibility, so necessary for the well-being of a community and that the older inhabitants will be understanding, co-operative and charitable’.
The book contains many references to, and photos of, individuals, families and homes which will be of interest to anyone with a connection to Leverstock Green, but the collection also has a much wider appeal as a record of the expansion of Hemel Hempstead and of twentieth-century English social history. It is a unique and valuable time capsule of which Dacorum Heritage is proud custodian.

Alex Scott
Dacorum Heritage Volunteer November 2023

This Stokes mortar bomb was made at John Dickinson's Apsley paper mill during the First World War when part of the mill changed production to help the war effort.

The Ministry of Munitions took over and used the mill to make trench mortar bombs and small shells. Many women worked in the factories and the manager at Nash Mills noted that they did the preparatory work ‘just as efficiently as men’.

A second painting by Lefevre Cranstone in the collection is this oil on canvas of Hemel Hempstead market. It includes members of the Cranstone family.

The Cranstone family were iron mongers and first came to live in Hemel Hempstead in 1798. Lefevre’s father set up an iron foundry on their Market Street premises, known as the Phoenix Works. You can still see many ironworks in the town such as The Grade II listed ‘fountain’ and gas lamp standard.

The Cranstones were also prominent members of the Quaker church, attending the nearby Meeting House on St Mary’s Road.

Lefevre James Cranstone was born in Hemel Hempstead in 1822. He developed an interest in art from an early age and was enrolled at Henry Sass’s School of Art in 1838 before entering the Royal Academy School as a probationer in 1840.

During his artistic career, he exhibited several paintings at the Royal Academy and at the Society of British Artists, yet he never achieved national recognition from his Victorian audience.
Lefevre is perhaps best known abroad, particularly in the USA. He visited America in 1859 producing over 300 sketches. Today, many of his works are in notable American institutions, including the art collection at The White House and the Metropolitan Museum of Art.


This gas mask case was unofficially made in the card department of John Dickinson's Apsley paper mill where the owner's husband was working.

Cardboard boxes for gas masks were just one type or item that Dickinson's switched to making during the Second World War, along with blackout paper, bombers made of paper and even fuel pumps for aircraft.

During the war, Dacorum was recognised as a safer location than London and became a reception area for evacuees. Children were temporarily rehomed in many Dacorum towns and villages for the duration of the war.

Dickinson's accommodated employees' children from their Tottenham branch at Shendish Manor, the company's sports and social club.


This key belonged to William Hemmings, who served as Sir John Evans’s butler in the 1800s. The key would have been used to open the wine cellar.
Evans was a famous archaeologist, philosopher and scientist. At the age of 17, he began working at John Dickinson's Apsley paper mill. Dickinson was Evans’s uncle and later became his father-in-law.
Hemmings was described as a well-loved and respected man who had gained for himself the reputation of the perfect butler. Originally from Piccotts End, he was the eldest son of a large, well-known family. His father was a gardener to the Gadebridge Estate for many years.


One of four line and half tone printing blocks made at John Dickinson's Apsley paper mill to print items for St Mary's Church, Apsley.

John Dickinson patented a method of papermaking in June 1809. In 1850, the company started mechanical envelope manufacturing, with gummed envelopes. The production of fine rag paper on electrically driven machines was a successful innovation at Nash Mill. The company pioneered the production of window envelopes in 1929.